Caerlaverock


Caerlaverock
   CAERLAVEROCK, a parish, in the county of Dumfries, 5 miles (S. S. E.) from Dumfries; containing, with Sherrington, Bankhead, Glencaple-Quay, and Blackshaws, 1297 inhabitants. Different opinions exist in regard to the derivation of the name of this parish, some interpreting the words of which it is composed, "the castle with the buttress jutting out," and others, "the castle close upon the sea," referring to the most prominent historical memorial in the place, the singularly formed and strong fortress called Caerlaverock Castle. It stands near the shores of the Solway Frith, and is of triangular figure, having a double moat, with portcullis after portcullis, to defend the entrance; there is also a provision for the discharge of a torrent of molten lead on the heads of the besiegers. The existing castle is the second building, the first, which has long been totally destroyed, having nothing left but the foundations, which are visible about 300 yards from the more modern structure, and indicate the old castle to have been somewhat smaller than the present, but of the same form. The original castle is said to have been founded in the 6th century, by Llywarch Og, and to have been the chief seat of the ancient and illustrious family of Maxwell, in the days of King Malcolm Canmore; it was attacked and taken by King Edward I., who afterwards passed several days here. The exact time when the second castle was built, has not been ascertained, but is known to have been before the year 1425; in 1570, it was ruined by the Earl of Sussex, who had been sent with an English army, to support James VI., after the murder of the regent. It was, however, reinstated in its former strength, by Robert, first Earl of Nithsdale, in 1638; and during the troubles of Charles I., its owner, who had supported the royal cause with all his energies, was ordered by that monarch to yield it up, on the best terms he could obtain. After the siege by Cromwell, it was found to contain eighty-six beds, forty carpets, and a library worth £200.
   The parish is six miles long, and about two broad, containing 5800 acres, and is bounded on the south by the Solway Frith; on the east, by the Lochar; and on the west, by the river Nith, which separates it from the county of Kirkcudbright. The Solway, in this part, is about twelve miles wide. The Nith is affected by the tide as far as Dumfries, but at low water is easily fordable; it forms about six miles of the boundary line of the parish. The Lochar, on the other side, flows through an extensive moss, which prevents all communication in that quarter, except in the driest months of summer, and then it is passable only by pedestrians. The soil, to some extent, is mossy, but its general character is that of light loam, and the worst soil is, in this district, usually in the valleys: 4323 acres are cultivated, and produce all kinds of white and green crops; 126 acres are under wood, 75 are moss and river, and 252 marsh. The cattle are of the Galloway breed, with a few Ayrshire cows, and the sheep are the Leicesters; the best system of agriculture is followed, and the improvements recently made in every department have been considerable. The rateable annual value of the parish is £4495. The rocks almost throughout consist of red sandstone, which is easily wrought, and durable, and is used for many purposes. At Glencaple-Quay, the chief village, large vessels bound for Dumfries unload, when unable, from their burthen, to reach their place of destination. There is a salmon-fishery connected with the parish, valued at £100 per annum, and a white-fishing is valued at £40. The ecclesiastical affairs are directed by the presbytery of Dumfries and synod of Dumfries; patron, the Marquess of Queensberry. The stipend of the minister is £177, with a manse, built in 1838, by the heritors, and a glebe of nearly 20 acres, valued at £32 per annum. The church, built in 1781, contains 470 sittings. There is a parochial school, in which mathematics, the classics, and all the usual branches of education are taught, and the master of which has the maximum salary, with fees, and £40 a year from the Hutton bequest. Two other schools are supported out of bequests, and there is a parochial library, instituted in 1833. Dr. John Hutton, first physician to Queen Anne, was born here, and after realizing a handsome fortune by his profession, became a munificent benefactor to his native parish, and left a valuable library to the presbytery of Dumfries, comprising the prayer-book used by the unfortunate King Charles when on the scaffold. This prayer-book, however, was some time ago abstracted, and sold at an auction in London for a large sum.

A Topographical dictionary of Scotland. . 1856.

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  • Caerlaverock Castle — is a 13th century triangular moated castle in the Caerlaverock National Nature Reserve area at the Solway Firth, south of Dumfries in the south west of Scotland.In the Middle Ages it was owned by the Maxwell family. Today, the castle is in the… …   Wikipedia

  • Caerlaverock NNR — is a National Nature Reserve covering part of the Solway Firth and the land south of Dumfries, in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland. It lies between the River Nith and Lochar Water. It is administered by Scottish Natural Heritage.It has been… …   Wikipedia

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  • WWT Caerlaverock — is wetland nature reserve in southwest Scotland, one of nine reserves in Britain operated by the Wildfowl and Wetlands Trust founded by Sir Peter Scott.It covers a 587 hectare site at Eastpark Farm, on the north shore of the Solway Firth to the… …   Wikipedia

  • Reserva natural de Caerlaverock — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Vista sobre el estuario de Nith, cerca del golfo de Solway. La Caerlaverock NNR es una reserva natural nacional que se extiende por parte del golfo de Solway y terreno al sur de Dumfries, en Dumfries and Galloway …   Wikipedia Español

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